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Grasshopper
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The Grasshopper

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Anthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Orthropoda

 

 

 

 

Reproduction Grasshoppers reproduce sexually (male/female fertilization.) Only full grown grasshoppers have reproductive organs. Eggs are produced in the ovaries (female) and sperm in the testes (male.) When sperm enters the female body it is stored in the seminal receptacle. Eggs are fertilized in the oviduct, then leave the females body. At the end of the females body is a hard four-pointed organ  called an ovipositor, which is used to dig holes for the eggs. The eggs are laid in the fall, but dont hatch until spring. Eggs go through incomplete metamorphosis

 

Circulatory A grasshopper has an open circulatory system which means the blood flows into open spaces or sinuses. The blood is colorless because it contains no hemoglobin. The blood transports food and waste but not oxygen or carbon dioxide. Along the dorsal surface of the grasshopper is the aorta and a tubular heart as well as a large pericardial sinus and a large sternal sinus. Contractions of the heart pump da blood through the aorta to the head. In most open systems the blood moves slowly but systems are efficient enough to meet the needs of the organisms.

 

Nervous Has more complex behavior than earthworms ( has a highly developed nervous system.) Consists of a brain (head region) , a part  of the ventral nerve cords (throughout the  body) and a ganglion (nerves branch out from here throughout body.) Has eyes ( compound and simple), antennae (feelers) and taste organs (respond to chemical stimuli) and are sensitive to sounds (using tympanum.)

 

Excretion Excretory organs are malpighian tubules. They have open circulatory systems so the excretory organs are bathed directly by the blood. Waste from celomic fluid enters the tubules by diffusion. Then the waste passes into the intestine. Water and other nutrients are reabsorbed both in the tubules and the intestine. These are returned to body fluids. Dry waste is called uric acid and is passed from the body, along with feces, through the anus.

 

Digestive The grasshopper has a tubular digestive system. Food enters the mouth and is mechanically broken down, and then mixed with saliva by salivary glands. Food is then transported from esophagus to the crop (temporary storage place.) Chitinous teeth-like plates, which grind food, are seen in the muscular gizzards. [Gastric mil (gizzard and crop).] Chemical digestion takes place in the stomach. Gastric caeca surround stomach. They contain cellulose digesting bacteria . In intestines products of digestion are absorbed by the body through the blood stream. Then solid waste is excreted via anus

 

Metamorphosis

-Undergoes incomplete metamorphosis

- The eggs hatch into nymphs

-The nymphs resemble adult

-They lack adults features

- Nymph lacks wings and reproductive structures

-The nymphs molt several times and they become bigger and more like the adult

-In incomplete metamorphosis the 3 stages of development are the egg, nymph and adult

 

Motion and Skeletal- The body of the grasshopper is covered by an exoskeleton of chitin. The exoskeleton is divided into pieces separated from each other by flexible joints. This allows the grasshopper to move freely. The body has 3 major divisions, the head thorax and abdomen. The thorax has 3 pairs of jointed legs, the 2 front pairs for walking and the 3rd for jumping. Also 2 pairs of wings: outer protective pair, inner pair for flying.

 

Respiration Does not depend on the circulatory system. Blood does not need to carry carbon dioxide and oxygen. Air is carried directly to cells by the tracheal tubes. Air enters and leaves through 10 pairs of openings called spiracles. The tracheal tubes branch out into smaller tubes. These tubes have fluid filled ends that connect to the cells. This is where the actual respiration takes place. Oxygen diffuses from the tubes into the cells, carbon dioxide from the cells enters the tubes. Oxygen is pumped through the tracheal tubes by muscle contraction. Small air sacks contribute to pumping the oxygen through the tubes. THE END

 

 

By Moi and Kate!